When Nicolas Bourbon, a friend of the French poet, humanist, philosopher Erasmus, was at the court of Henry VIII, and especially before Anne Bolin, he described Hans holbin as "the painter of the king, apelles of his time ".
It's really a court compliment, twins.
The goal, because Apelles is the most famous of the ancient Greek painters, transcends all others in terms of elegance and realism --
Praise to Holbein and praise to the King, for Apelles are the court painter of Alexander the Great, and therefore, if Holbein is considered Apelles of the time, then Henry must be Alexander
Hans holbin was born in Augsburg, southern Germany, an international and prosperous city of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Renaissance was the center of any city north of the Alps, it is also the main course to spread Italian art and decoration ideas.
The exact date is not yet clear, but around 1497 or 1498 Leonardo da Vinci was desperate when Milan and Cabot discovered Labrador's last dinner.
His father, Hans, a respected and prosperous altarpieces and portrait painter, is the head of a large studio that employs many assistants, his brother Sigmund, his second son, Hans, was younger in the early stages of his career.
In the view of mainland scholars, the difference between "elder" and "elder" is still in use, but in Britain, we mainly regard "elder" as a British painter, we neither know nor care about his father, nor seldom use the elders and young fathers to clarify possible confusion.
We are foolish to ignore the old man Hans, because it was he who taught his son to paint, paint and design prints from wood-carved and carved metal plates, and he was the pipe of Dutch influence, he introduced him to the practice of painting portraits, not only as a preparation for a painting, but almost as a work that can be done independently, more direct and honest, more of a prank, and of course less limited by formal portrait requirements.
The young Hans moved to Basel in 1515, probably because his brother was already there.
They work together)
It is almost certain that the city, as the center of the booming multilingual printing of books, promises employment.
Within a year, he created illustrations for Erasmus's praise for stupidity, followed by decorative decorations for the early Basel version of Thomas More's Utopia;
His name will be inseparable from their name.
Carry from Erasmus at 1526 (
Then live in Basel)
, Holbein to London with more-
So Carel van Mander, his earliest biographer, told us that in 1604-
It is hoped that through this devout Catholic humanitarian politician, courtiers and a trusted advisor to Henry VIII, he will be able to receive sponsorship from the King.
There is no evidence that any artist or any work of art he meets on the journey has had an impact on him and it seems that by the time he is in his twenties his style has been fully formed to keep him unaffected
Has Holbein been to Italy before, and then the habit of northern painters?
1518 is a gap in his life record.
The right age for such a trip
But, again, in the next few years, nothing shows that he has a special reaction to anything he might see in the warm south, and the general response is easy to come from print.
Van Mande believes he will not go to Italy.
Holbein's desire to get the court's support in London was met with frustration.
For Henry VIII, he only needs to paint landscapes for the carnival and the mask, and his serious work as a portrait is limited to private sponsorship.
His biggest work in two years, 1526-
28, a portrait of Thomas More and his family, the life of ten characters-
The size of the four-meter-wide canvas is often referred to as a landmark in British art history;
But that was burned at 1752 and the rest was just some related drawings and a few half
We can measure the length of other seats from his observations, the color palette and things that deal with paint to draw portraits.
In August 1528, holbin returned to Basel, where his workshop continued to operate.
Two years ago, Erasmus observed that "the art of this place in the world is freezing", but now, as power shifts from Catholic to the most terrible and evil Protestant denominations, the city has become a bastion of religious reform. Art is no longer frozen, but frozen.
Loss of Catholic sponsorship (
Religious Image banned by the new regime)
Uneasiness caused by new religious referees
Holbein was brought to the town council for not accepting the reformed Eucharist)
He returned to London in the winter of 1531. 32.
There, by 1536, he had become a member of his time.
Holbin's years in Britain are the theme of the Tate Gallery exhibition.
Its curator, Susan Foster, nods to us and pays tribute to Augsburg and Basel, but if there is no more solid foundation at the beginning, it is certainly difficult for uninformed people to judge this
As a young contemporary of Raphael, Michele Angelo Giro, and Titian, will the Italian poet of his time call him "the one who hides all our names?
"To the best of our knowledge, his great portrait of Thomas More and his family is a remarkable achievement in the portrayal and depiction, fully in line with the belief of humanism, that is, a person's face reflects his soul and emphasizes naturalism rather than status. However, the composition shows the focus of the official group photo, in this photo, all scenes must be described and identified equally.
Description is the key to this portrait --
Description of the fabric, fur and jewelry, balancing his strict observation description of the face and attitude;
In a surviving picture of the whole (
Basically a diagram of his intentions, not a study of readiness)
, There is no evidence of light and shadow, no movement or any active participation, and of course no influence from the Mantua mantenya Gonzaga family
A mural painted for two full generations, and some experts insist that holbin must have seen it during his unfinished Italian Journey.
If any assumptions are made from two large artifacts
Scale works performed in the second English period of Holbein-
The murals of Henry VIII, his mother, his wife and father destroyed in the Palace of Whitehall, and the murals of Henry VIII and the Barber --
The surgeon, who did not finish at the time of his death, did not make any obvious contributions himself
We are dealing with a painter whose response to the requirements for group Portraits is at best simple and the worst is original.
Once the sane person is amazed by holbin's superb grasp of detail and his ability to draw images that do not break up at a powerful magnification on a tiny scale, what is left?
Nicholas Bourbon replied, "Oh stranger, would you like to see a picture that looks alive?
Then look at these, made by Holbein.
"But is this always true?
Holbein painted Mrs. Gilford at 1527, which is indeed a vivid observation of a mature woman with Bath's wife's animal appetite, but in this painting (
Many necessary but not included in one of the exhibitions)
Every hint of joy and sensuality is gone and she becomes pious and unpleasant.
Judging from the general seriousness of the drawings of the second English period, one can only imagine that holbin has learned the futility of naturalism, which tells a humorous story about his British sitcom, it became his mode directly;
There are indeed too many portraits in formal painting portraits that are very dull.
During his first British period, from late autumn 1526 to summer 1528, we believe that holbin experienced some hostility as a foreigner;
Back in Basel, until the late spring of 1532, he met the influence of extreme Christianity hated by Catholics on art and artists;
Back in England, in the late autumn of 1543, where he stayed until about 45 years old and died of the plague, he faced the influence of religious reform under the reign of Henry VIII, this time, he expects better sponsorship.
We didn't know that when he became "Ruyi Pavilion", Bourbon put it at 1536, but he must have used 1533 for the King.
I would like to know that during these years, his noble and beautiful old friend, Thomas More, was beheaded for treason in 1535 and went through more than a year of harsh imprisonment, and he had
As a Catholic and a foreigner, holbin probably did not give any opinion about the judicial murder, but how can he endure grief in this case?
Maybe he's not feeling sad?
What kind of person is he?
As a young man in Basel, he was arrested and fined for fighting in the street, but other stories about noise, drinking and playing with women were considered fictional by affectionate historians.
Van Mande thinks his wife in Basel has a very bad temper and he can't get along with her in peace;
However, he may be disgraceful without a wife
In his will a few days before his death, he left the money to take care of two children in the London "nurse", without mentioning older siblings or their mother (or mothers? ).
Is it possible that the woman he drew with four children was his record in London? -
For any noble patron, this is an essay that is too informal and domestic.
His only high-profile porn is a little fable or symbolic panel inscribed on the horse by a naked man, "so desire takes me forward.
"There are too many small things in the exhibition --
The design of jewelry, metalwork, book decoration and dagger handle, and such a bad miniature model
However, it is worth noting that in the National Gallery, which was supposed to be held at this exhibition, there were no major works of 1533 ambassadors, or even none.
Without this masterpiece, the only real remains of the Henry VIII mural have substance (
A lot of copywriting is nothing more than a dull small document)
Any discussion of this ambitious committee is almost futile.
I must also argue that holbin seems to prefer to paint portraits of his German compatriot Hansa businessman than any Englishman other than an Englishman, the gentle Simon George was an exception to the second British period;
It is not dated and must follow the Derich Born portrait of 1533, which is an amazing regression and development of the type established in the first period, even with the same vines in the now tense pure blue background
Like the fig leaves that appear in some earlier portraits, including the squirrel lady in the National Gallery.
Derich Born is the best of these Hansa portraits, more direct than formal, increasingly discreet court portraits, and the soul of holbin and his nanny has been completely wiped out.
Again, I'm confused about the warmth --
It's really the heat of Flushing.
In the flesh tones of many portraits, give the courtiers who should be pale a rustic, sunburned look.
As for the drawings, I would like to know if we should question the authenticity of the color of some of them; while some -
Mrs. Gilford, for example, and more family members --
There are subtle color notes in line with the overall drawing, the tones of the boy with the mar monkey and even the structures are disrupted by the added colors, and Sir John godesaf's research is almost clumsy;
We know that the reinforced contours of many drawings are not drawn by Holbein, and it doesn't seem unreasonable to assume that the insensitive addition of colors is not added by his hand.
Two paintings of religious subject matter, the first period of "Norle may Tanger" and the parable of the old and new laws of the second period, raise the question of holbin's ability to transcend portraits.
Neither should be seen as great painting, nor as evidence of the ability to construct and control the composition of the characters, nor should they be seen as a message that can be conveyed through the pose of the characters, holbein also did not show any obvious sense of anatomy, proportion or grace in his poorly developed human image.
People have to wonder how the people on the left are
In Basel in 1522, the young genius painted the Dead Christ in his grave, a mature work full of powerful imagination, sinking to the point where it was possible to draw these innsThe London logo?
Van Mande began his Holbein life in England, suggesting that he was "a great painting genius, rising up in a place where no genius has ever appeared ";
I tend to end the comment on a sad inadequate exhibition that is at the mercy of what is possible and not what should be, as I suggest that he not rise here, but sink.
Holbein in the UK is at the Tate. 020 7887 8888)
Until January 7. Daily, 10am-5pm. Admission £10.